Since consumers are concerned about range and charging, and there is a lack of EV charging infrastructure in India, the adoption of electric vehicles is being hampered. It is necessary, then, to talk about the EV charging infrastructure in order to see the rapid increase of electric vehicles. The charging requirements for EVs rely on the EV battery parameters since the battery has to be powered to the correct voltage and current levels to enable charging. Read on to know more about EV charging infrastructure in India and its power ratings, Indian standards for AC and DC charging.
EV charging infrastructure in India
The battery capacity varies, however, in various sectors of EVs, such as two-wheelers and three-wheelers powered by low-voltage batteries. In contrast, electric four-wheelers will need larger batteries and higher voltages.
Electric light commercial vehicles (LCVs) would consist of both low-voltage and high-voltage vehicles depending on their load-carrying capabilities, according to the EV charging infrastructure guide issued by the NITI Aayog, a Government of India think tank. It has specificated several battery types for various EV sectors, including battery capacity and battery voltage for two-wheelers, three-wheelers, electric cars (1st generation), electric cars (2nd generation).
|Vehicle Segment||Battery Capacity||Battery Voltage|
|E-3W (P& G)||3.6-8 kWh||48-60V|
|E-cars (1st gen)||21 kWh||72V|
|E-cars (2nd gen)||30-80 kWh||350-500V|
It says that in view of the increasing demands for products and services, the need for freight transport is likely to rise quickly in the future, according to the press release recently issued by NITI Aayog. Even while freight transportation is critical for economic growth, it comes at a significant cost in terms of logistics and adds to increasing levels of CO2 emissions and pollution in urban areas.
India has the potential to
- Reduce its logistics cost by 4% of GDP
- Achieve 10 gigatonnes of cumulative CO2 emissions savings between 2020 and 2050
- Reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions by 35% and 28%, respectively, until 2050
The charging structure of the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment)
When it comes to charging an electric vehicle, it requires both direct current (DC) and alternate current (AC) input to the battery, which is provided by an AC EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment). The AC power is sent to the onboard EV charger, which turns it into DC. A DC EVSE externally converts electricity and provides DC power to the battery directly to bypass the onboard charger.
The power ratings of the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment)
EV charging is classified according to its power output, with regular power charging reaching 22kW and high power charging reaching 200kW. While globally accessible EVSEs up to 500 kW are primarily for heavy-duty trucks and buses.
For electric two-wheelers, three-wheelers, and e-cars, standard power AC charging is sufficient. Normally in India, DC charging is unusual, as LEVs and low voltage batteries are often seen in e-cars. For LEVs and cars that have single-phase onboard chargers, the AC chargers with a maximum capacity rating of 7kW are sufficient. Whereas for electric vehicles with bigger onboard chargers, 3-phase AC chargers up to 22kW are required.
For high voltage electric cars of between 30-80KWh battery capacity, DC chargers range from 25 kW to 60 kW are available on the market. However, in the near future more powerful DC chargers will be readily available.
Higher electrical supplies and adequate infrastructure are needed for e-cars to use high-power DC fast charging. However, the conventional energy distribution network can offer regular power charging.
Indian standards for AC and DC charging
IS 17017 is India’s main EV charging standard, which has three components and six sections for AC charging. It offers all EV charging systems with fundamental features. The IS-17017-Parts 21 & 22 technical requirements must be complied with both by AC and DC EVSE. Indian AC EVSE requirements for light EVs and e-cars in parking spaces have been accepted.
The DC charging stations with a power output of 50kW to 200kW are equipped with the IS-17017-Part-23. Additionally, to accommodate buses and other heavy vehicles, high power charging standards are necessary. The IS-17017-Part-25, particularly designed to provide a low DC power of less than 7 kW for light electric vehicles, has recently been developed by the BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards).
The communication will be in accordance with the IS-15118 series if the Combined Charging System (CCS) standard is used that can offer AC and DC charging.
EV charging systems include several components and processes: land supply and energy supply for EV charging; the specification and installation of the EV charging equipment; day-to-day operations; and maintenance of the EV charging facilities. In our next post, we will cover further information concerning the classification of EV charging infrastructure, government stakeholders’ functions and responsibility, charging points operators and e-mobility providers, assessment of EV charging demand, etc.